Results are presented from the on-orbit calibration of the Jason Microwave Radiometer (JMR). The JMR brightness temperatures (TBs) are calibrated at the hottest and coldest ends of the instrument's dynamic range, using Amazon rain forest and vicarious cold on-Earth theoretical brightness temperature references. The retrieved path delay values are validated using collocated TOPEX Microwave Radiometer and Radiosonde Observation path delay (PD) values. Offsets of 1–4 K in the JMR TBs and 8–12 mm in the JMR PDs, relative to TMR measurements, were initially observed. There were also initial TB offsets of 2 K between the satellite's yaw state. The calibration was adjusted by tuning coefficients in the antenna temperature calibration algorithm and the antenna pattern correction algorithm. The calibrated path delay values are demonstrated to have no significant bias or scale errors with consistent performance in all nonprecipitating weather conditions. The uncertainty of the individual path delay measurements is estimated to be 0.74 cm ± 0.15, which exceeds the mission goal of 1.2 cm RMS.