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Bacterial and Archaeal DNA Extracted from Inoculated Experiments: Implication for the Optimization of DNA Extraction from Deep-Sea Basalts

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Abstract:

Difficulties in efficient DNA extraction from deep-sea volcanic basalt, due to high metal concentration, complex organic matter, or sometimes the low biomass, have hampered the understanding of the significant biosphere both at and below the sea floor. In order to optimize the DNA extraction from basaltic rocks, sterilized basalts with different particle sizes and chemically synthesized goethite were inoculated with an iron oxidizer Marinobacter aquaeolei and an extreme halophilic archaeon Halobaculum gomorrense respectively, and extracted with several methods. Large variations in DNA yields by different extracting methods including FastDNA® spin for soil kit, GeneClean® for ancient DNA kit, UltraClean™ and traditional phenol-chloroform methods. Among the commercially available kits tested here, FAST spin kit and GeneClean® for ancient DNA kit yield 10 times more DNA than the UltraClean™ kit used. In combination with FAST spin kit, skim milk greatly enhanced the archaeal DNA yields. DNA extracting efficiency was low with the cell number lower than 1 × 106 cells, but reached as high as 88% with a cell number of 1 × 108 cells. On these points, different strategies should be taken into consideration for the DNA extraction from basalts, depending on original biomass and cell types anticipated. FAST spin kit could provide high quality bacterial DNA for downstream PCR whilst the combination of FAST spin kit with skim milk would greatly enhance the archaeal DNA yields. GeneClean® for ancient DNA kit is also recommended for archaeal DNA extraction from deep sea basalt due to its high yield.

Keywords: DNA extraction; deep-sea basalt; goethite; skim milk

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01490450903060814

Affiliations: 1: Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, P. R. China,Geomicrobiology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA 2: Geomicrobiology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA,Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Publication date: October 1, 2009

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