There is a wave of interest in Marine Protected Areas (MPA) and Integrated Management (IM) as tools for addressing declines in marine environments through ecosystem-based management. Lessons learned from seven MPA and two IM initiatives in Canada show how engaging stakeholders results in: building and maintaining momentum through social capital; using the collective knowledge of stakeholders; consensus through formal and informal rules; and developing leadership capacity. However, as the number of issues or the number of stakeholders increases - especially where fisheries are involved - time, resources, and challenges in gaining support and participation increase. Political and administrative obstacles and resistance to change still constitute much of the challenge. Finally, funding and political commitment must be allocated from the start; otherwise momentum stops and it is hard to regain even when funding becomes available.
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