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Open Access Characterization of Soot Particles Produced in a Transparent Research CR DI Diesel Engine Operating with Conventional and Advanced Combustion Strategies

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The effect of the combustion mode on particle emission was analyzed both in the cylinder and at the exhaust of a direct injection (DI) Common Rail (CR) transparent research diesel engine by means of spectroscopic and conventional methods. The engine was equipped with a flexible electronic control unit (ECU) capable of operating up to 5 injections per cycle with different start of injection and dwell time allowing performing different combustion modes. The conventional diesel combustion, the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), and the low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were analyzed. In-cylinder broadband UV–visible scattering and extinction measurements were carried out to follow the particle formation and oxidation processes as well as to have information about their chemical nature and size distribution. The characterization of the particulate emission at the exhaust was performed by means of an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI), for the counting and the sizing of the particles, and an opacimeter, for measuring the smoke opacity. The in-cylinder measurements highlighted that particles ranged from 3 to 100 nm whatever was the combustion mode. Nevertheless, particles produced by a conventional diesel combustion process principally consist of soot. Whereas particles formed during HCCI and LTC modes are composed mainly of organic compounds. The exhaust particle emissions depend on the combustion mode both in terms of size and number. A larger amount of particles smaller than 100 nm was emitted during HCCI and LTC modes with respect to the conventional one. Moreover, HCCI mode showed a strong accumulation mode.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Instituto Motori—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Naples,Italy,

Publication date: 2012-03-01

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