Segmented canonical discriminant analysis of in situ hyperspectral data for identifying 13 urban tree species
Abstract:A total of 458 in situ hyperspectral data were collected from 13 urban tree species in the City of Tampa, FL, USA using a spectrometer. The 13 species include 11 broadleaf and two conifer species. Three different techniques, segmented canonical discriminant analysis (CDA), segmented principal component analysis (PCA) and segmented stepwise discriminate analysis (SDA), were applied and compared for dimension reduction and feature extraction. With each of the three techniques, 10 features were extracted or selected from four spectral regions, visible (VIS: 1412-1797 nm), near-infrared (NIR: 707-1352 nm), mid-infrared 1 (MIR1: 1412-1797 nm) and mid-infrared 2 (MIR2: 1942-2400 nm), and used to discriminate the 13 urban tree species with a linear discriminate analysis (LDA) method. The cross-validation results, based on training samples that were used in the feature reduction step, and the results calculated from the test samples were used for evaluating the ability of the in situ hyperspectral data and performance of the segmented CDA, PCA and SDA to identify the 13 tree species. The experimental results indicate that a satisfactory discrimination of the 13 tree species was achieved using the segmented CDA technique (average accuracy (AA) = 96%, overall accuracy (OAA) = 96% and kappa = 0.958 from the cross-validation results; AA = 90%, OAA = 90% and kappa = 0.896 from the test samples) compared to the segmented PCA and SDA techniques, respectively (AA = 76% and 86%, OAA = 78% and 87%, and kappa = 0.763 and 0.857 from the cross-validation results; AA = 79% and 88%, OAA = 80% and 89%, and kappa = 0.782 and 0.879 from the test samples). In this study, the segmented CDA transformation is effective for dimension reduction and feature extraction for species discrimination with a relatively limited number of training samples. It outperformed the segmented PCA and SDA methods and produced the highest accuracies. The NIR and MIR1 regions have greater power for identifying the 13 species compared to the VIS and MIR2 spectral regions. The results indicate that CDA or segmented CDA could be applied broadly in mapping forest cover types, species identification and/or other land use/land cover classification practices with hyperspectral remote sensing data.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: April 1, 2011