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Evaluation of detector-to-detector and mirror side differences for Terra MODIS reflective solar bands using simultaneous MISR observations

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The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the five Earth-observing instruments on-board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth-Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. It has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.4 m and collects data at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25 km for 2 bands with 40 detectors each, 0.5 km for 5 bands with 20 detectors each and 1 km for the remaining 29 bands with 10 detectors each. MODIS bands are located on four separate focal plane assemblies (FPAs) according to their spectral wavelengths and aligned in the cross-track direction. Detectors of each spectral band are aligned in the along-track direction. MODIS makes observations using a two-sided paddle-wheel scan mirror. Its on-board calibrators (OBCs) for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) include a solar diffuser (SD), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) and a spectral-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Calibration is performed for each band, detector, sub-sample (for sub-kilometre resolution bands) and mirror side. In this study, a ratio approach is applied to MODIS observed Earth scene reflectances to track the detector-to-detector and mirror side differences. Simultaneous observed reflectances from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), also onboard the Terra spacecraft, are used with MODIS observed reflectances in this ratio approach for four closely matched spectral bands. Results show that the detector-to-detector difference between two adjacent detectors within each spectral band is typically less than 0.2% and, depending on the wavelengths, the maximum difference among all detectors varies from 0.5% to 0.8%. The mirror side differences are found to be very small for all bands except for band 3 at 0.44 m. This is the band with the shortest wavelength among the selected matching bands, showing a time-dependent increase for the mirror side difference. This study is part of the effort by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) in order to track the RSB on-orbit performance for MODIS collection 5 data products. To support MCST efforts for future data re-processing, this analysis will be extended to include more spectral bands and temporal coverage.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, MD, USA 2: Sciences Exploration Directorate, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA 3: University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA

Publication date: 2011-01-01

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