Wheat plants were experimentally infested with wheat stem sawflies, and hyperspectral images (reflectance range from 402.8-838.7 nm) were collected from leaves of infested and non-infested plants. Mean and variance reflectance per leaf were calculated in five of 213 spectral bands (452, 553, 657, 725, and 760 nm) and compared with vegetation indices (NDVI, SI and PRI), and standard variogram parameters (nugget, sill and range values). Mean reflectance values and their variance values and vegetation indices showed significant effects of sawfly infestation in one dataset but not in another. Based on directional variogram analyses, we showed that: (1) better separation of leaf type and infested/non-infested wheat plants was seen in variograms in longitudinal direction compared to transverse; (2) mainly spectral bands in the red edge and NIR showed consistent effect of sawfly infestation; (3) range values were not affected significantly by either sawfly infestation or leaf type; and (4) sawfly-induced stress was most likely to be detected about three weeks after infestation. Variogram analysis is one of the key standards in quantitative spatial ecology, and this study supports further research into its use in remote sensing with particular emphasis on detection of biotic stress.
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Document Type: Research Article
Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, 1102 E FM 1294 Lubbock, TX 79403-6603, USA,Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
Montana State University, Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
Resonon Inc., 619 North Church, Bozeman, MT 59715, USA
Publication date: 2009-01-01
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