Bezymianny volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, is one of the most active volcanoes in the North Pacific (NOPAC) region and erupts violently on average every 6 months. We report the SO2 cloud mass, emission and transport rates for the eruption of Bezymianny on 13-14 January 2004, and discuss the issues associated with determining SO2 production and transfer to the atmosphere from NOPAC volcanoes. During the 13-14 January 2004 eruption, Bezymianny was observed twice by the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 0025 and 0210 UTC on 14 January. Using a retrieval based on the 8.6 µm SO2 infrared absorption feature, MODIS yielded a total cloud mass of 34.6±5.19 kt of SO2, an SO2 emission rate of ∼(4.9×103)±(9.12×102) kg s-1, and a transport rate of ∼16.5 m s-1. We tested the sensitivity of the SO2 algorithm to the following input parameters: cloud top height, atmospheric profile, spectral emissivity of the ground and maximum SO2 threshold. The retrieval is sensitive to the atmospheric profile and is particularly dependent on the choice of background emissivity. Multiple background emissivity spectra, obtained over homogeneous backgrounds, reduce errors in the retrieval, when compared to single, less homogeneous emissivity regions.
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Document Type: Research Article
Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA,Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK,Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA
Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway
Publication date: 2008-11-01
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