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Remote sensing techniques provide timely, up-to-date and relatively accurate information for the management of sugarcane crop. This article reviews the literature on the application of remote sensing to sugarcane agriculture and highlights the challenges and opportunities pertinent to the success of this application. The aim of the review was to provide accurate and fundamental information relating the spectral properties of sugarcane to its agronomic, health and nutritional status characteristics that would be of importance to cane farmers and farm managers. The applications of the remote sensing techniques in sugarcane agriculture have been undertaken with particular emphasis on sugarcane classification and areal extent mapping, thermal age group identification, varietal discrimination, yield prediction and crop health and nutritional status monitoring. It can be concluded that by selecting appropriate spatial and spectral resolution as well as suitable processing techniques for extracting sugarcane spectral information, remotely sensed data should find use in sugarcane agriculture in all areas of application with satisfactory results.