Landfill detection in Hurghada, North Red Sea, Egypt, using Thematic Mapper images
The coastline of Hurghada has experienced considerable environmental stress from tourist and residential recreational activities. Uncontrolled tourist development has already caused substantial damage to inshore reefs and imbalance in the hydrodynamic pattern of the coastal sediments. The objective of this paper is to investigate environmental changes using multitemporal, multispectral satellite data to identify changes at Hurghada caused by anthropogenic influences. Major detected changes include resort beaches, protection structures and landfill areas; these changes are mainly due to human intervention. Two Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired in 1984 and 1997 are used for this analysis. The landfill areas formed during this period are calculated at about 2.15 million m2. Whilst landfill creates new inexpensive land and improves access to the sea for tourists, it is the cause of environmental problems. In addition, land-use/land-cover and beach changes are determined over the 13-year period.