Thermal microwave emission depth and soil moisture remote sensing
This paper presents some additional theoretical and experimental results on the problem of estimating the soil depth to which soil moisture can be directly measured by VHF radiometers. The experimental work was implemented in August 1992 at the Research Farm of the Institute of Hydrotechnique and Amelioration, Sofia, Bulgaria. The soil thermal microwave emission was measured by an L-band Dicke-type radiometer at 1.65GHz at off-nadir angle from 20 to 60. It was found that the value obtained for the effective penetration depth depends on the definition used in the analysis: the definition of penetration depth is based on soil thermal emissivity or soil reflectivity. Further it was found that the depth to which the soil moisture can be directly measured exhibits a negligible dependence on polarization (horizontal, vertical) as well as on off-nadir observation angle. For the purpose of soil brightness temperature and soil reflectivity computing, a fast and robust method and algorithm were proposed which are based on Kong's coherent soil model. The experimental measurements were used to verify the model fitting to experimental conditions and results.