Atmospheric correction over land for MERIS
A three-stage atmospheric correction is proposed for the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) from a validated formulation of the signal. We correct first for the gaseous transmittance. Assuming the ozone correction is well defined, we illustrate the need to include a correction for water vapour continuum which covers most of the MERIS bands. The water vapour transmittance can be computed from the water vapour content obtained from a twoband ratio at 900nm and 890nm. We demonstrate that a direct association between the transmittance in a given band and the two band ratio is more accurate due to the removal of the coupling between absorption and scattering. Secondly, the Rayleigh correction depends on the barometric pressure determined here from a two band ratio method with the oxygen A band. Good accuracy is obtained for the pressure when accounting for the coupling between scattering and gas absorption, which mostly depends on the surface reflectance. The Rayleigh reflectance is computed from a Fourier series decomposition in which primary scattering is corrected for multiple scattering by a multiplicative factor which is derived from a polynomial regression versus the optical thickness. A similar formulation of the signal is proposed for the aerosol reflectances from 12 predefined aerosol models. The aerosol correction relies on a characterization of the aerosol over Dense Dark Vegetation for which an identification criteria is proposed along with standard reflectance values in the blue and in the red.