This paper demonstrates how remote sensing can be used to aid the general approach of landscape archaeology. The methodology and results of a project attempting to elucidate links and controls between environmental change and long-term social change in southern Madagascar are outlined. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM images, SPOT panchromatic and ERS-1 SAR images are used to produce a number of outputs. These include a general landcover map, a detailed map of forest extent and type (split into primary, secondary, and regenerative), field pattern maps, and predictions of archaeological site locations based on spectral properties of known sites. From these maps it has been possible to predict possible former settlements, archaeological sites, and forests of sacred significance.