Satellite-based forest fire detection for fire control in boreal forests
Abstract. Forest fires in large sparsely populated areas in the boreal forest zone are difficult to detect by ground based means. Satellites can be a viable source of information to augment air-borne reconnaissance. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites has been used to detect and map fires in the past mainly in the tropics and mainly for environmental monitoring purposes. This article describes real-time forest fire detection where the aim is to inform local fire authorities on the fire. The fire detection is based on the 3.7 mu m channel of the NOAA AVHRR sensor. In the fire detection algorithm, imaging geometry is taken into account in addition to the data from the near-infrared and thermal infrared channels. In an experiment in summer 1995, 16 fires were detected in Finland. One was a forest fire, 11 were prescribed burnings and 4 false alarms. Three of the false alarms were due to steel factories. We conclude that satellite-based fire detection for fire control is feasible in the boreal forest zone if the continuous supply of frequent middle-infrared data can be guaranteed in the future.