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Abstract. The theoretical study of both land and sea surface temperature remote sensing is treated through investigating the extension to the microwave region (1-100GHz) of the split window technique, usually used in the thermal infrared region for sea surface temperature measurements. The study of land surface temperature shows that, in both regions (infrared and microwave), the influence (of atmospheric water vapor content and surface emissivity) is critical. The theory is based on the Radiative Transfer Equation, which assumed solutions can be given in both spectral regions, with respect to Wien`s and Rayleigh-Jean`s laws, respectively. The surface temperature determination is studied in connection with the surface emissivity in both infrared and microwave regions determined with an iterative process. Infrared data is provided by the sensor Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and microwave data by Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), through the WETNET program, directed by NASA/HQS.