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Biodiversity and biogeography of non-marine Mollusca on the islands of the Southern Ocean

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Abstract:

There are no terrestrial and freshwater molluscs associated with Continental nor Maritime Antarctica. The malacofaunas of the cool-temperate and sub-Antarctic islands of the Southern Ocean are extremely depauperate, comprising a mere 68 site-records of 51 species from 27 genera in 13 families. The South Atlantic records are confined to the Falkland Islands, which harbour nine species (one bivalve, five pond snails and three terrestrial aliens), and South Georgia, where there is one Notodiscus sp. (Charopidae). The fauna of the South Indian Ocean islands of Prince Edward, Crozet, Kerguelen and Heard, comprises two alien slugs and endemic Notodiscus hookeri (Charopidae). The majority of species occur on the South Pacific Ocean Islands of Macquarie, Campbell, Auckland, Snares, Antipodes, Bounty and Chatham to the south and east of New Zealand. The Chatham fauna is dissimilar to that on the other South Pacific Islands, though both represent vicariant remnants of common South Pacific Is./New Zealand Athoracophoridae, Charopidae and Punctidae. There is, other than the broad South Indian Ocean distribution of Notodiscus hookeri, little evidence of Holocene dispersal and colonization. Indeed the Southern Ocean is an effective barrier and the different regional (South Atlantic/Indian/Pacific) faunas are principally vicariant and derived from local survivors of Pleistocene glaciation.

Keywords: ANTARCTICA; AQUATIC; BIOGEOGRAPHY; BIVALVIA; COLONIZATION; DISPERSAL; GASTROPODA; LAND SNAIL; MOLLUSCA; SOUTHERN OCEAN; VICARIANCE

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00222930110034562

Publication date: 2002-06-01

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