Quantum information processing and precise optical measurement with entangled-photon pairs
Two photons in a pair generated in the nonlinear optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion are, in general, strongly quantum entangled. Accordingly, they contain extremely strong energy, time, polarization and momentum quantum correlations. This entanglement involves more than one quantum variable and has served as a powerful tool in fundamental studies of quantum theory. It is now playing a large role in the development of novel information processing techniques and new optical measurement technologies. Here we review some of these technologies and their origins.