Thin film analysis with nuclear methods
Nuclear physics provides a number of unique methods to analyse thin films in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometres thickness. This article first describes the basics and recent applications of the most prominent ion-beam analysis techniques, such as Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, elastic recoil detection, ion channelling, and particle induced X-ray emission. The use of microbeams in thin-film analysis will be sketched. In addition, some nuclear techniques using (implanted) radioactive probe nuclei will be shortly described, such as emission channelling, conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy and perturbed gamma-ray angular correlations. Mainly, such examples have been selected where combinations of these analysing techniques illustrate their respective power and limitations.