In 1783 John Michell published a note entitled ‘On the Means of Discovering the Distance, Magnitude etc. of the Fixed Stars, in Consequence of the Diminution of the Velocity of their Light', but it was Christian Doppler who in 1842 for the first time formulated the principle (now generally known by his name): If a source of sound or light is in motion relative to an observer, or an observer in motion relative to a source, the period of the waves received by the observer will be different from the period of the waves emitted by the source. The acoustical Doppler principle was verified in 1845 by Buys-Ballot's experiments and by Ernst Mach (in the laboratory, using a Rotationsapparat (1860)). H. Fizeau proposed to verify the optical Doppler principle by measuring the shift of lines in the spectra of stars (1848). This was carried out by William Huggins (1868 ff.), and H. C. Vogel and led to exact results in 1892. The Doppler effect with canal rays was shown by Johannes Stark in 1905.