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Ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices: mimicking condensed matter physics and beyond

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We review recent developments in the physics of ultracold atomic and molecular gases in optical lattices. Such systems are nearly perfect realisations of various kinds of Hubbard models, and as such may very well serve to mimic condensed matter phenomena. We show how these systems may be employed as quantum simulators to answer some challenging open questions of condensed matter, and even high energy physics. After a short presentation of the models and the methods of treatment of such systems, we discuss in detail, which challenges of condensed matter physics can be addressed with (i) disordered ultracold lattice gases, (ii) frustrated ultracold gases, (iii) spinor lattice gases, (iv) lattice gases in "artificial" magnetic fields, and, last but not least, (v) quantum information processing in lattice gases. For completeness, also some recent progress related to the above topics with trapped cold gases will be discussed. Motto: There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy 1
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Keywords: Disordered systems; Frustrated systems; Hubbard Models; Quantum information; Spinor gases; Ultracold atomic and molecular gases

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2007-03-01

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