Tree Mortality, Foliage Recovery and Top-kill in Stands of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Subsequent to Defoliation by the Pine Looper (Bupalus piniaria)
In 1996, the pine looper (Bupalus piniaria) (L.) defoliated 7000 ha of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest at Hökensås, in southern Sweden. To study tree mortality, foliage recovery and top-kill, plots were laid out in stands with varying levels of defoliation in autumn 1997. Tree mortality peaked 2 yrs after defoliation, and amounted to 25% in stands suffering from 90-100% defoliation. Suppressed trees suffered higher mortality than intermediate and dominant trees. In stands suffering <90% defoliation, tree mortality did not exceed 8%. Foliage recovery in moderately and severely defoliated stands was not complete at the end of the 4 yr study period, whereas slightly defoliated stands had regained full foliage in 1998. Top-kill was most frequent in severely defoliated stands, and 50% of all trees in these stands suffered from top-kill at the end of the study period in spring 2001.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2003-12-01