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Automatic Stem Mapping in Three Dimensions by Template Matching from Aerial Photographs

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Recent developments in remote sensing have shown promising results for the detection and species classification of individual trees from high-resolution imagery of forests in leaf-on condition. Existing image-analysis algorithms produce a two-dimensional stem map in the observed imagery. This paper develops a new algorithm that generalizes existing template-matching algorithms to produce a stem map in the three dimensions of a forest in leaf-off condition. A self-contained algorithm to produce artificial template images is introduced. The image-analysis algorithm was applied to oak (Quercus robur L.) grown under standard silvicultural treatment in Denmark. One analysis gave detection rates in the range 85-98% and root mean squared errors on the stem base coordinates below 8.1, 7.6 and 20.5 cm in the x-, y- and z-directions, respectively. It is concluded that it is indeed feasible to produce a quite accurate three-dimensional stem map.
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Keywords: 3D; DENMARK; DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS; OAK; PHOTOGRAMMETRY; QUERCUS ROBUR L; REMOTE SENSING; STEM DETECTION; THREE-DIMENSIONAL; TREE DETECTION

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2002-08-01

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