Effects of Seed Invigoration and Microsite Preparation on Seedling Emergence and Establishment After Direct Sowing of Pinus sylvestris L. at Different Dates
Seed properties and seedbed conditions influence forest regeneration following direct seeding. It might therefore be possible to improve result by improving seed quality and seedbed conditions. In a direct seeding experiment designed to determine the effects of seed invigoration (incubation at 30% moisture content for 7 days) and microsite preparation (2-cm-deep pyramidal indentations) on the regeneration, sowing was repeated on eight different occasions, and seedling emergence, survival and height growth were recorded. Seedling emergence, mainly after early sowing, was improved by invigoration when used in combination with microsite preparation. Both survival and growth were impaired by delaying sowing until later in the growing season, but were not significantly affected by invigoration or microsite preparation. It is concluded that an improved and less varying regeneration result after direct sowing may be achieved by using invigorated seeds in combination with microsite preparation.
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