Side-effects of Formulations of Permethrin and Fenvalerate Insecticides on Frost Resistance and Field Performance of Picea Abies Seedlings
Side - effects of the permethrin formulations Gori 920 and Gori 920 L, the fenvalerate formulation Sumicidin 10 FW and the emulsifier of the Gori formulations were studied in seedlings of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. Whole plant treatment with the Gori formulations in early autumn resulted in a 5-0°C poorer frost tolerance (TDI) later in the autumn. Moreover, this treatment increased mortality by 30% within 2 yrs of testing in field trials. In contrast, a basal part treatment with the Gori formulations and whole plant treatment with Sumicidin 10 FW containing 10% fenvalerate had no negative effects during 2 yrs of field testing. Late autumn treatment with Gori 920 and Gori 920 L, followed by cold storage for 6 months, revealed poorer frost tolerance (3-4°C) in the spring than that in the control. These treatments also reduced leader shoot growth in the first year and increased the frequency of seedlings lacking a dominant leader after 2 yrs by 20-40%. The detrimental agent in Gori 920 L was found to be the emulsifier, ethoxylated nonylphenol, alone and in combination with the dispersal agent, linseed oil. The linseed oil had no significant additional negative effect on frost resistance and growth after the cold storage during the winter. The investigation demonstrates the necessity of testing for possible side-effects before practical use of any commercial pesticide formulation.