Revisions of labeling for personal watercraft: Part 2 – label evaluation
Abstract:This two-part paper presents a case study related to the development and evaluation of warning labels for a class of products known as personal watercraft (PWCs). These two papers serve as an example application of a general process for developing and evaluating safety information. Part 1, presented in the companion paper, describes the process of project planning, identifying and analyzing potential hazards, and developing two preliminary warning labels to address PWC operational hazards. Part 2, the present article, describes the process of evaluating and revising the preliminary labels to produce the final iterations. In all, eleven iterations of the labeling were produced and evaluated. Evaluation took many forms including seeking input from various parties with special expertise, assessing the ease with which words and phrases were understood, and assessing the extent to which people understood the concepts being conveyed by the labels. The results demonstrated that the various components of the final version of the labels were comprehended at rates that ranged from 96.3% to 100%. As a result of the work described in these papers, revised labels for PWCs with increased uniformity will be used by PWC manufacturers, although flexibility for specific model features or future changes in design will be retained.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: December 1, 2001