Injuries cause a substantial part of mortality, morbidity and disability world-wide and are responsible for more years of life lost than other nosological entities. The etiology of injuries is multifactorial and the predisposing factors can be divided mainly into human factors and environmentally related risks. Existing data indicate that socio-economic disparities are predictors of both injury morbidity and mortality as well as the long-term outcome of an injury. However, carefully designed and well organized studies should be conducted in order to evaluate which indices more accurately describe the socio-economic status of an individual in relation to the injury risk and which of these indices can be effectively used for international comparisons. Moreover, there is a need to assess to what extent the detrimental role of social deprivation is mediated through environmental characteristics rather than through individual attributes. The identification of these component factors of social disparity would facilitate the disclosure of mechanisms through which social factors affect the injury risk.