It is widely accepted that aquaculture initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to deliver benefits to society in the long run. Development of new national aquaculture strategies (NAS) is thus a common approach. In this study, we interviewed 21 key stakeholders, and a sustainability
checklist consisting of 68 questions was applied to the NAS for Cameroon to understand to what extent it mainstreams sustainable development principles. The NAS assessed clearly defines the respective roles of the public and private sectors. Nevertheless, there are several shortcomings that
could impede its sustainability and that of a subsequent aquaculture development plan.