Skip to main content

Haunted Manuscripts: Ghost Authorship in the Medical Literature

Buy Article:

$63.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Ghost authorship occurs when an individual who contributed substantially to a manuscript is not named in the byline or acknowledgments. Ghost authors may be employed by industry to prepare clinical trial results for publication. An expert is then “hired” as author so as to lend an air of credibility and neutrality to the manuscript. Ghost authorship is difficult to detect, and most articles that have been identified as ghostwritten were revealed as such only after investigative work by lawyers, journalists, or scientists. Ghost authorship is ethically questionable in that it may be used to mask conflicts of interest with industry. As it has been demonstrated that industry sponsorship of clinical trials may be associated with outcomes favorable to industry, this is problematic. Evidence-based medicine requires that clinical decisions be based on empirical evidence published in peer-reviewed medical journals. If physicians base their decisions on dubious research data, this can have negative consequences for patients. Ghost authorship also compromises academic integrity. A “film credit” concept of authorship is one solution to the problems posed by ghost authorship. Other approaches have been taken by the United Kingdom and Denmark. A solution is necessary, as the relationship between authorship and accountability must be maintained.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Kunin-Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest Centre For Geriatric Care, Toronto, Ontario 2: Kunin-Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest Centre For Geriatric Care; Departments of Medicine and Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto; Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario

Publication date: 2005-04-01

More about this publication?
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more