High-Level Field Resistance to Bacillus sphaericus C3-41 in Culex quinquefasciatus from Southern China
Abstract:A flowable mosquito-larvicidal formulation of Bacillus sphaericus strain C3-41 has been continuously used for 8 years to control Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in Dongguan, Guangdong Province, China. This formulation had high efficacy against the target larvae during the first 6 years of treatment. However, under this high selection pressure, C. quinquefasciatus showed a significant level of resistance to C3-41 from years seven to eight. The resistance ratio of field-collected larvae at LC50 was calculated to be 22 672-fold in comparison with the susceptible laboratory colony. Interestingly, no cross-resistance was observed to B. sphaericus strain LP1-G which had the same toxicity against both susceptible and resistant larvae, and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was found to be more active to the latter than the former. After six months treatment with the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis formulation in the B. sphaericus resistant population area, the mosquito population recovered its susceptibility to B. sphaericus C3-41, with the resistance ratio of field-collected larvae dropping from 22 672- to 5.67-fold.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2000