Influence of Culture Conditions on Growth and Survival of Conidia of Trichoderma spp. Coated on Seeds
Five Trichoderma strains were grown on rice, on vermiculite plus potato-dextrose broth (PDB), on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) or in liquid cultures supplemented with glycerol, KCl or polyethylene glycol (PEG) at -1 MPa or - 2 MPa. Conidia were coated on seeds through a methyl cellulose coating or through an industrial film-coating process. The conidial yield decreased with glycerol, KCl or PEG compared with PDB alone. The percentage viability was from 23 to 44% after methyl cellulose coating, regardless of the culture conditions for conidial production. In general, the industrial coating resulted in lower numbers of living conidia. The viability during storage was enhanced when vermiculite, rice or PDA were used as substrates for fungal growth. Nevertheless, temperature of storage was found to be more critical to spore survival than the substrate used for spore production; conidial viability on seeds did not exceed 4 months at 15 C. Solid and liquid cultures produced conidia able to control R. solani and P. ultimum when applied to seeds through industrial film coating. The level of disease suppression varied with the number of viable conidia/seed and with the culture medium used for conidial production. The three main conditions for further industrial application-high yields, longevity and biocontrol effectiveness-might be optimized by selecting the appropriate medium (liquid or solid), water potential and solutes used.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 1997-06-01