Estimates of Water Ingestion for Women in Pregnant, Lactating, and Non-Pregnant and Non-Lactating Child-Bearing Age Groups Based on USDA's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals
Source: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, Volume 14, Number 6, November 2008 , pp. 1273-1290(18)
Publisher: Taylor and Francis Ltd
Abstract:Women in the child-bearing age of 15 to 44 years and, in particular, pregnant and lactating women in this age cohort are considered a sensitive subpopulation when assessing risk from ingestion of water because water borne contaminants may pose a risk not only to the mother but to the fetus or infant. This article presents estimates of daily average per capita water ingestion for women of child-bearing age and in three subgroups: pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant/non-lactating women. Estimates of means and upper percentiles of subgroup ingestion distributions were generated using participant responses and survey weights from the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 1994-96 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). The ingestion estimates are empirical and not based on an assumed parametric distribution of daily average amount of water ingestion. Water occurring naturally in foods or added by manufacturers to commercial products is not included in the estimates presented. These estimates of water ingestion by women of child-bearing age are compared to those attributed to Ershow and Cantor (1989) by Burmaster (1998). These estimates, based on data collected in 1978, were used by Burmaster to characterize the distribution of daily average per capita ingestion as lognormal. The lognormal estimates of total water ingestion are generally greater than the total water ingestion estimates based on the CSFII data. Possible explanations for the differences are discussed.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: November 1, 2008