Epidemiological studies of workers in the nickel industry, animal exposure studies, and reports on the potential mechanisms of nickel-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity indicate that only crystalline sulfidic nickel compounds have been clearly established as carcinogenic or potentially carcinogenic in humans. This observation indicates the need to modify and update regulatory approaches for nickel to reflect noncancer toxicity values for some individual nickel species. Analysis of nickel compounds in residual oil fly ash (ROFA) indicates that sulfidic nickel compounds (e.g., nickel subsulfide, nickel sulfide) are not present. Thus, the potential for emission of carcinogenic nickel compounds from residual oil fly ash appears to be low. Preliminary reference concentrations (RfCs) for a number of nickel compounds, based on non-carcinogenic endpoints, are proposed on the basis of the benchmark dose approach in conjunction with NTP data for nickel species.
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residual oil fly ash
Document Type: Research Article
Center for Biomedical & Toxicological Research, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
Hazardous Substance & Waste Management Research, Inc., Tallahassee, Florida, USA
FPL Environmental Services, Juno Beach, Florida, USA
ENVIRON, Ruston, Louisiana, USA
Publication date: 2004-08-01