Nickel Carcinogenicity in Relation to the Health Risks from Residual Oil Fly Ash

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Epidemiological studies of workers in the nickel industry, animal exposure studies, and reports on the potential mechanisms of nickel-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity indicate that only crystalline sulfidic nickel compounds have been clearly established as carcinogenic or potentially carcinogenic in humans. This observation indicates the need to modify and update regulatory approaches for nickel to reflect noncancer toxicity values for some individual nickel species. Analysis of nickel compounds in residual oil fly ash (ROFA) indicates that sulfidic nickel compounds (e.g., nickel subsulfide, nickel sulfide) are not present. Thus, the potential for emission of carcinogenic nickel compounds from residual oil fly ash appears to be low. Preliminary reference concentrations (RfCs) for a number of nickel compounds, based on non-carcinogenic endpoints, are proposed on the basis of the benchmark dose approach in conjunction with NTP data for nickel species.

Keywords: ROFA; RfC; benchmark dose; cancer; nickel; reference concentration; residual oil fly ash

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Center for Biomedical & Toxicological Research, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA 2: Hazardous Substance & Waste Management Research, Inc., Tallahassee, Florida, USA 3: FPL Environmental Services, Juno Beach, Florida, USA 4: ENVIRON, Ruston, Louisiana, USA

Publication date: August 1, 2004

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