Tributyltin and triphenyltin (TBT and TPT) are biocides that have been used to prevent fouling of boats, preserve wood, kill molluscs, and other uses. Due to observed effects on oysters and snails, their use in boat paints has been banned in many nations. However, use on ships and some uses other than as antifouling paints continue. These uses, the relative persistence of these compounds, their tendency to bioaccumulate, and their toxicity cause lingering concerns about risks to humans and non-human organisms. This paper outlines an integrated assessment of TBT and TPT. Based on prior human health and ecological assessments, it suggests that an integrated assessment that recognized common pathways of transport, fate and exposure, and common modes of action would be more efficient and complete than additional independent assessments. The presentation of risks in an integrated manner could also lead to better decisions by defining the various benefits of any management action.
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Document Type: Research Article
Division of Chem-Bio Informatics, National Institute of Health Science, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga Setagayaku, Tokyo 158-8501 Japan.
National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 USA.
National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mail drop 66, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
Publication date: 2003-01-01