Forensic Ecotoxicology: Establishing Causality between Contaminants and Biological Effects in Field Studies

$61.74 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:

Abstract:

Twelve papers in this series were derived from two conference sessions focusing on causality in field studies. Eight of these papers involve case studies examining biological effects of chemical contaminants in field situations. Using a weight-of-evidence approach, these case studies were evaluated against seven proposed criteria for establishing causality. The seven criteria were: strength of association; consistency of association; specificity of association; time order; biological gradient; experimental evidence; and biological plausibility. One of these seven criteria, 'specificity of association' was found to be of little utility for establishing causality in these field studies. The case studies are presented in approximate order of increasing levels of biological organization (i.e., going from endpoints at the suborganismal level to endpoints at the population or community level). In case studies examining higher levels of biological organization, it appears that the 'biological gradient' criterion was also not useful in establishing causality. These results, together with suggestions from other papers in the series, are used to recommend a set of modified criteria for establishing causality in field studies of the biological effects of chemical contaminants.

Keywords: causality; contaminants; ecoepidemiology; field study; weight of evidence

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713609862

Publication date: January 1, 2003

Related content

Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more