We report a case study showing relationships between historical insecticide applications (1973 to 1990) of an aminocarb formulation (Matacil® 1.8D ) containing 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and catch data for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. To address the hypothesis that Matacil® 1.8D caused reductions in Atlantic salmon catch, seven epidemiological criteria are used to evaluate causality between the stressor and effect. These criteria include: strength of association; consistency of association; specificity of association; time order; biological gradient; experimental support; and biological plausibility. We conclude that the general weight-of-evidence supporting the seven epidemiological criteria is consistent with a causal relationship between declines in salmon catch and Matacil® 1.8D exposure during parr-smolt transformation (PST). If the effects exerted by 4-NP are due to its activity as a weak estrogen, then hormonal activity stemming from other sources (e.g., domestic sewage, agricultural, industrial) might influence present day salmon populations.
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Document Type: Research Article
Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute, P.O. Box 5050, Bington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Gulf Fisheries Centre, P.O. Box 5030, Moncton, NB, E1C 9B6, Canada
Publication date: 2003-01-01