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Establishing Causal Relationships between Environmental Stressors and Biological Effects in Field Studies

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Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713609849

Affiliations: 1: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Fish Health Program, Environmental Conservation Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, NMFS, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA, USA 98112. 2: Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA 37831.

Publication date: January 1, 2003

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