In this paper, a PC-based off-line programming (OLP) method using the virtual reality modeling language is proposed. The developed OLP system consists of simulation programs, a block-arrangement algorithm, an optimal traveling-path generation algorithm, an automatic robot program generator
and the TRIBON CAD interface. The strength of the developed PC-based OLP system lies in its flexibility in handling the changes in the robot's target objects. The operator can generate robot programs very easily and quickly. Possible applications of the developed OLP can be extended to port
automation, container loading/unloading processes as well as painting and grinding processes in the shipbuilding industry.