Oil, War and Forced Migration in Sudan
This article contends that competition between national and Southern Sudanese political elites for control of oil development in Southern Sudan was a major cause of the nation's second civil war (1983-2005). Chevron's discovery of oil in the Upper Nile region of Southern Sudan in 1978 raised tensions between the political elites in the national government and those in the then autonomous Southern Sudan region. The Southern elites raised arms against the central government to rectify their perceived exclusion from the development of the oil industry. In 1984, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) attacked Chevron's personnel and facilities, closing down oil development temporarily. Other western oil companies that invested in Sudan after Chevron, such as the Canadian oil company Talisman, also withdrew or suspended operations mainly due to rebel threats. However, companies from China, Malaysia, India and other Asian countries continued to operate in the country. ...
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2006-05-01
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