ABSTRACT The questionnaire used for the U.S. Listening to Mothers II survey was translated and culturally adapted to measure Japanese women’s experience during the period of pregnancy planning through early postpartum. Methods included expert panels and two phases
of cognitive interviews with 20 postpartum Japanese adult women. The number of problems with the translated questionnaire effectively decreased in the iterative process. Most problems were found in the question‐interpretation stage of cognitive processing, such as wording/tone. Culture-specific
concepts and unclear items were adapted to prevent erroneous interpretations in future studies. The future use of this questionnaire to generate data sets will be useful for professionals interested in developing evidence-based practices. The knowledge from this study can be helpful in improving
health-care services and education for women with diverse languages and cultural backgrounds.
The Journal of Perinatal Education is the official journal of Lamaze International, whose mission is to promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth through education and advocacy. The journal publishes peer-reviewed articles and evidence-based, practical resources that childbirth educators and other health care professionals can use to enhance the quality and effectiveness of their care or teaching to prepare expectant parents for birth.