Back to Basics: The Apgar Score: Simple Yet Complex
Evaluation of the newborn at birth includes assignment of the Apgar scores at one and five minutes of age. Dr. Virginia Apgar (Figure 1) developed this evaluation procedure in the 1950s, and it has been used routinely for more than a half century. Apgar developed this assessment tool with five objective criteria: (a) heart rate (HR), (b) respiratory effort, (c) reflex irritability, (d) muscle tone, and (e) color (Table 1). Apgar described the criteria, scoring method, and the rationale for each of the five criteria. She stated in her second report that HR and respiratory effort were the most important of the five assessment criteria; that reflex irritability and muscle tone were next in importance; and that color was the least important. She explained that color is dependent on the criteria of HR and respiratory effort. To become pink, an infant needs to be breathing.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2012-05-01
More about this publication?
- Neonatal Network®, established in April 1981, is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to assisting neonatal nurses and related health care professionals remain current in their fields. Neonatal Network® acts as a vehicle for the exchange of information by providing up-to-date, relevant articles in the areas of evidence-based clinical practice, research, and education.
Neonatal Network® is issued six times a year; January/February, March/April, May/June, July/August, September/October, and November/December. With a circulation of 10,000, Neonatal Network® goes to more than 1,000 recognized Level II and Level III neonatal intensive care units in the United States.
Academy of Neonatal Nursing Free Access to Journal Contents Online
- Information for Authors
- Subscribe to this Title
- Information for Advertisers
- Academy of Neonatal Nursing Membership Information
- Academy of Neonatal Nursing Free Access to Journal Contents Online
- Request a Sample Issue
- Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites