Nanoparticles as Interphase Modifi ers in Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites: A Critical Review
Nanoparticles dispersed in fiber reinforced polymeric composites can improve many of their mechanical properties or impart to them additional electrical, thermal or magnetic properties. Such composites have found use in many applications as structural components, sensors, conductors, etc., and their study is an active area of research. Incorporating nanoparticles into the fiber-matrix interphase, i.e., the thin (≈ 0.1 – 1 μm) region between the fiber surface and the bulk matrix, can improve fiber-matrix adhesion by roughening the fiber surface, thus enhancing the mechanical interlock between the matrix and the fiber, or can result in a graded modulus from that of the stiff fiber to the bulk resin, often resulting in improved stress transfer and toughness. Many different methods to incorporate nanoparticles at or near fiber surfaces have been developed and implemented, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. In this review, three main methods for creating nanoparticle filled fiber-matrix interphases are discussed: growth of structured interphases from fiber surfaces, deposition of interphases onto fiber surfaces, and finally, formation of self-assembled interphases.
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