Cellulose Nanocrystals versus Polyethylene Glycol as Toughening Agents for Poly(Lactic Acid)-Poly(Acrylic Acid) Graft Copolymer
Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most widely used biodegradable polymers due to the ability to synthesize it economically at industrial scale and its favorable properties for many consumer products. However, the rigid nature of PLA is not desirable for specific applications, requiring the incorporation of effective bioderived additives in order to enhance the PLA toughness and broaden applications. In this work, PLA was modified by graft polymerization of polyacrylic acid (PLA-g-PAA) to increase the hydrophilicity to promote compatibilization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or high molecular polyethylene glycol (PEG). CNCs were found to act as a nucleating agent for the PLA-g-PAA copolymer due to an enhanced compatibility with these rigid nanocrystals, thus increasing the tensile modulus and reducing toughness. This was not the case for pure PLA, for which the toughness was increased up to 125% for a 1% CNC loading. PEG successfully increased toughness of the PLA-g-PAA by more than 34 times that of neat PLA and PLA-g-PAA with a substantial yet not critical reduction in strength and modulus for a wide range of applications.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2016-10-01
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- The Journal of Renewable Materials (JRM) publishes high quality peer reviewed original research on macromolecules and additives obtained from renewable/biobased resources. Utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, JRM introduces cutting-edge research on biobased monomers, polymers, additives (both organic and inorganic), their blends and composites. It showcases both fundamental aspects and new applications for renewable materials. The fundamental theories and topics pertain to chemistry of biobased monomers, macromoners and polymers, their structure-property relationship, processing using sustainable methods, characterization (spectroscopic, morphological, thermal, mechanical, and rheological), bio and environmental degradation, and life cycle analysis. Demonstration of use of renewable materials and composites in applications including adhesives, bio and environmentally degradable structures, biomedicine, construction, electrical & electronics, mechanical, mendable and self-healing systems, optics, packaging, recycling, shape-memory, and stimulus responsive systems will be presented.
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