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Sublethal shell injuries in Late Devonian ammonoids (Cephalopoda) from Kattensiepen (Rhenish Mountains)

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The ammonoids from the middle Famennian black limestone nodules at Kattensiepen (Rhenish Mountains) are known for their excellent preservation and show frequent sublethal shell damage of varying dimensions and of the finest detail. 76% of all specimens show traces of predation. This is the highest frequency of shell repairs known from the Palaezoic. While small individuals are less frequently affected, nearly all adult specimens of the species Platyclymenia annulata, Pl. subnautilina, Pleuroclymenia costata, and Prionoceras divisum display repaired injuries. Usually, the specimens show multiple areas of damage, which can be classified into several categories. Most of the points of damage are small, affecting only the margin of the aperture; they usually occur on both sides of the conch. Shell damage, which can be interpreted as bite marks are rare; the majority of shell injuries derive perhaps from arthropod attacks.


Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: September 1, 2011

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