Previously, the number of teudopseid coleoids that roamed the European seas during Early Toarcian times has been unclear. Re-study of a large set of teudopseid gladii from different European localities show that three species existed at that time: Teudopsis bunelii Eudes-Deslongchamps,
1835, Teudopsis bollensis Voltz, 1836 and Teudopsis subcostata (Münster, 1843). In the course of taxonomic treatments, the three taxa are re-described, a lectotype is designated for the first one, and neotypes are designated for the latter two. The most striking difference
concerns the anterior shape. It is rachis-like in Teudopsis bunelii, triangular in Teudopsis bollensis, and lanceolate in Teudopsis subcostata. Although an out-group comparison is problematic, the pronounced dorsal keel is an unequivocal autapomorphy of the Teudopseina.
The gladius of Teudopsis subcostata seems to possess the most ancient character combination. Phylogenetically, the trachyteuthidid lineage might have been originated from Teudopsis subcostata, whereas the palaeololiginid/muensterellid lineage evolved from Teudopsis bunelii.
A close phylogenetic relationship between teudopseids and modern decabrachian as sometimes proposed is not supported.
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