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Application of species distribution models in stream ecosystems: the challenges of spatial and temporal scale, environmental predictors and species occurrence data

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Modelling and mapping habitat suitability of species in a given study area has become a popular method to assess biogeographical questions on the habitat requirements of species, and to study the effects of land use or climate change on species distributions. Beside purely academic aims, model projections are increasingly used for devising conservation and management strategies and they are an established tool in conservation planning. Species distribution models (SDMs) link geographic presence records of species with environmental conditions found at these locations, and extrapolate the occurrence probabilities of species throughout the study area. While the modelling framework is similar in the terrestrial, marine and freshwater realms, each realm comprises specific challenges for combining the spatial scale, the environmental data and the species records for building reliable models. In this paper, we focus on these key issues from a stream ecology perspective and highlight three critical challenges to be kept in mind when building SDMs in stream ecosystems: (1) the spatial configuration in terms of the hierarchical structure of catchments and dendritic stream networks; (2) obtaining relevant and spatially continuous environmental predictors along the stream network, sourcing from three interfaces (stream vs. atmosphere, catchment area, groundwater) and (3) species detectability and thus the challenge of obtaining freshwater species occurrence data along the stream network. To depict freshwater species distributions at the stream level in the best possible way, multi-scale models are recommended, which account for scale dependence, a stronger integration of various environmental data types and sources, and heterogeneous species data. While model projections have the potential to serve as reliable tools for conservation and management purposes, this is only true if these relevant factors are considered in the modelling framework.
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Keywords: FRESHWATER; HABITAT SUITABILITY; INVERTEBRATES; OCCURRENCE DATA; PREDICTORS; RIVER; SCALE; STREAM

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2015-02-01

More about this publication?
  • Fundamental and Applied Limnology is an international journal for freshwater research in the widest sense, including problems of marine biology and brackish water research. Papers dealing with ecological topics are especially welcome in association with experimental or physiological studies. All papers published in this journal are subject to peer review.

    Archiv für Hydrobiologie, now Fundamental and Applied Limnology has been published continuously since 1906.

    Volumes prior to vol. 168 were published under the previous title Archiv für Hydrobiologie.
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