Taiwanese schools are actively promoting opportunities for students to obtain specialized certificates during their formal education. However, some students do not intend to achieve certification. Questions about how to increase these students' motivation to pursue this goal have therefore
arisen. Based on cognitive dissonance theory (CDT), the aim in this study was to examine whether or not students' attitudes toward certification examinations change if they take personal responsibility for the consequences of their decisions and actions. The results reveal that attitude change
was greatest among business students who most strongly felt a sense of responsibility. As predicted, the results were consistent with CDT.