Not only item content but also item format is important: Taxonomizing item format approaches

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In this article I argue that as well as item content, item formats (i.e., phrasing and response formats) are also important. Most trait items can be mapped onto 4 dimensions: point of reference (first person, possessive, others, indicator), general item format (staticity, frequency, valency, frequency + valency), construct indicator (attributal, behavioral, mental, contextual), and conditionality (unconditional, conditional). An item taxonomy tree for the first person perspective is provided for an Openness to Experiences item, and NEO-PI-R Extraversion items are analyzed according to the 4-item format dimensions. Future lines of research on item phrasing are outlined.
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