THE TRANSLATION EQUIVALENCE OF THE EFFORT SCALE BETWEEN CHINESE AND PORTUGUESE TRAVEL AGENTS
The problem of establishing translation equivalence of the Effort Scale (O'Neil & Snow, 1990) to Chinese and Portuguese was examined with the goal of conducting cross-cultural research on attributions of success and failure in the travel industry of Taiwan and Brazil. The methods of establishing translation equivalence utilized here included a judgmental back-translation method and a statistical method. A group of 80 bilingual travel agents made up of 34 Brazilian travel agents and 46 Chinese travel agents, of ages ranging from 25 to 40 years old, completed the source and target versions of the Effort Scale.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2008-01-01
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