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This study used the MMPI-2 to explore the personalities of yellow-belt and black-belt martial artists. A total of 40 participants completed the MMPI-2 and a demographic questionnaire. Black-belt females tended to be less defensive than were other martial artists, but also displayed more paranoia and more anger than average. Females of both ranks reported a higher degree of anxiety and health concerns than did males in the study, and black-belt females also reported more family problems than did other groups. Finally, black belts in general reported more health concerns than did yellow belts.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 2007

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