This study investigated gender differences in depression among volunteer undergraduates (N = 8,538) recruited from 17 Islamic countries. The Beck Depression Inventory II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996), was used in its Arabic form for all groups except the Pakistan group, which
used the English version. Results indicated that there are significant gender differences in 9 of the Islamic countries in which females tended to be higher in depression namely, Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Pakistan, Algeria, Oman, Qatar, Morocco, and Kuwait. However, males scored significantly higher
than females in Saudi Arabia, while there are no significant gender differences in depression in Lebanon, Tunisia, Palestine, U.A. Emirates, Yemen, Jordan, and Sudan. The salient gender differences were interpreted in the light of a socialization process; especially sex-typing and gender roles.